Tuesday, August 25, 2009


[edit] External links

Wikiversity has learning materials about Introduction to Computers/Processor

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Microprocessors
[edit] General
Great Microprocessors of the Past and Present – By John Bayko
Microprocessor history – Hosted by IBM
Microprocessor instruction set cards – By Jonathan Bowen
CPU-Collection — An extensive archive of photographs and information, with hundreds of microprocessors from 1974 to the present day
CPU-World – Extensive CPU/MCU/FPU data
Gecko's CPU Library – The Gecko's CPU/FPU collection from 4004 to today: hundreds pages of pictures and informations about processors, packages, sockets, etc.
HowStuffWorks "How Microprocessors Work"
IC Die Photography – A gallery of CPU die photographs
[edit] Historical documents
TMS1802NC calculator chip press release – Texas Instruments, September 17, 1971
1973: TI Receives first patent on Single-Chip Microprocessor
TI Awarded Basic Microcomputer Patent – TI, February 17, 1978 ("microcomputer" to be understood as a single-chip computer; a simple µC)
Important discoveries in microprocessors during 2004 – Hosted by IBM
Pico and General Instrument's Single Chip Calculator processor Possibly pre-dating Intel and TI.
1974 speculation on the possible applications of the microprocessor
original papers written by ray M. Holt


Ak Ray & KM Bhurchandi , "Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals on Architecture Programming and Interfacing" published in India by Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.


1. ^ Adam Osborne, An Introduction to Microcomputers Volume 1 Basic Concepts,2nd Edition, Osborne-McGraw Hill, Berkely California, 1980, ISBN 0-931988-34-9 pg1-1
2. ^ Although originally calculated as a doubling every year,[1] Moore later refined the period to two years.[2] It is often incorrectly quoted as a doubling of transistors every 18 months.
3. ^ Hodgin, Rick (2007-12-03). "Six fold reduction in semiconductor power loss, a faster, lower heat process technology". TG Daily (TG Publishing network). http://www.tgdaily.com/content/view/35094/113/. Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
4. ^ http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/micro.htm
5. ^ http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/CompHist_9812tla6.PDF
6. ^ (Karam, Andrew P. 525n)(Karam, Andrew P. "Advances in Microprocessor Technology." Schlager, Neil and Josh Lauer. Science and its Times. Farmington Hills, MI: The Gail Group, 2000 . 525-528).
7. ^ http://www.cse.nd.edu/courses/cse30322/www/hw/history_of_4004.pdf
8. ^ http://oz.plymouth.edu/~harding/historymicro.html
9. ^ http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/augarten/p38.htm
10. ^ http://www.pdl.cmu.edu/SDI/2001/092701.html
11. ^ http://ee.sharif.edu/~sakhtar3/books/Exploring%20C%20for%20Microcontrollers.pdf
12. ^ http://oz.plymouth.edu/~harding/historymicro.html
13. ^ http://autocww.colorado.edu/~toldy2/E64ContentFiles/ComputersElectronics/Microprocessor.html
14. ^ http://www.wsts.org/press.html
15. ^ http://www.circuitcellar.com/library/designforum/silicon_update/3/index.asp
16. ^ http://www.embedded.com/shared/printableArticle.jhtml?articleID=9900861
17. ^ "Renesas seeks control of controller arena" by Mark LaPedus 2008


In 2007, the companies with the largest share of the microprocessor controller market were[17]
Renesas Technology (21 percent)
Freescale Semiconductor (12 percent share)
NEC (10 percent)
Infineon (6 percent)
Microchip (6 percent)
Fujitsu (5 percent)
Matsushita (5 percent)
STMicroelectronics (5 percent)
Samsung (4 percent), and
Texas Instruments Semiconductors (4 percent)
Other microprocessor design companies include:
Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
ARM Holdings
CPU Tech
IBM Microelectronics
MIPS Technologies
Sun Microsystems
VIA Technologies
Western Design Center


[edit] Architectures
MOS Technology 6502
Western Design Center 65xx
ARM family
Altera Nios, Nios II
Atmel AVR architecture (purely microcontrollers)
RCA 1802 (aka RCA COSMAC, CDP1802)
DEC Alpha
4004, 4040
8080, 8085
8048, 8051
iAPX 432
i860, i960
M32R architecture
MIPS architecture
Motorola 6800
Motorola 6809
Motorola 68000 family, ColdFire
Motorola G3, G4, G5
NSC 320xx
OpenCores OpenRISC architecture
PA-RISC family
National Semiconductor SC/MP ("scamp")
Signetics 2650
SuperH family
Tensilica Xtensa
Transmeta Crusoe, Efficeon (VLIW architectures, IA-32 32-bit Intel x86 emulator)
INMOS Transputer
x86 architecture
Intel 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188 (16-bit real mode-only x86 architecture)
Intel 80286 (16-bit real mode and protected mode x86 architecture)
IA-32 32-bit x86 architecture
AMD64 64-bit x86 architecture
XAP processor from Cambridge Consultants
Xilinx MicroBlaze
XCore XS1-G4
Z80, Z180, eZ80
Z8, eZ8
and others

Market statistics OF MICROPROCESSER

In 2003, about $44 billion (USD) worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold. [14] Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers, those count for only about 0.2% of all CPUs sold.
Silicon Valley has an old saying: "The first chip costs a million dollars; the second one costs a nickel." In other words, most of the cost is in the design and the manufacturing setup: once manufacturing is underway, it costs almost nothing.[citation needed]
About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers. Over 2 billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 1997. [15]
Less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more. Of all the 32-bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers. Most microprocessors are used in embedded control applications such as household appliances, automobiles, and computer peripherals. "Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over $6." [16]

Special-purpose designs OF MICROPROCESSER

Though the term "microprocessor" has traditionally referred to a single- or multi-chip CPU or system-on-a-chip (SoC), several types of specialized processing devices have followed from the technology. The most common examples are microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU). Many examples of these are either not programmable, or have limited programming facilities. For example, in general GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders. There is no universal consensus on what defines a "microprocessor", but it is usually safe to assume that the term refers to a general-purpose CPU of some sort and not a special-purpose processor unless specifically noted.


In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors appeared, influenced by discrete RISC-like CPU designs such as the IBM 801 and others. RISC microprocessors were initially used in special purpose machines and Unix workstations, but then gained wide acceptance in other roles.
The first commercial microprocessor design was released either by MIPS Technologies, the 32-bit R2000 (the R1000 was not released) or by Acorn computers, the 32-BIT ARM 2 in 1986[citation needed] . The R3000 made the design truly practical, and the R4000 introduced the world's first 64-bit design. Competing projects would result in the IBM POWER and Sun SPARC systems, respectively. Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP, AMD 29000, Intel i860 and Intel i960, Motorola 88000, DEC Alpha and the HP-PA.
As of 2007, two 64-bit RISC architectures are still produced in volume for non-embedded applications: SPARC and Power Architecture. The RISC-like Itanium is produced in smaller quantities. The vast majority of 64-bit microprocessors are now x86-64 CISC designs from AMD and Intel.

MICROPROCESSER OF Multicore designs

Pentium D dual core processors
Main article: Multi-core (computing)
A different approach to improving a computer's performance is to add extra processors, as in symmetric multiprocessing designs which have been popular in servers and workstations since the early 1990s. Keeping up with Moore's Law is becoming increasingly challenging as chip-making technologies approach the physical limits of the technology.
In response, the microprocessor manufacturers look for other ways to improve performance, in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the market.
A multi-core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core, effectively multiplying the potential performance with the number of cores (as long as the operating system and software is designed to take advantage of more than one processor). Some components, such as bus interface and second level cache, may be shared between cores. Because the cores are physically very close they interface at much faster clock rates compared to discrete multiprocessor systems, improving overall system performance.
In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.
Sun Microsystems has released the Niagara and Niagara 2 chips, both of which feature an eight-core design. The Niagara 2 supports more threads and operates at 1.6 GHz.
High-end Intel Xeon processors that are on the LGA771 socket are DP (dual processor) capable, as well as the new Intel Core 2 Extreme QX9775 also used in the Mac Pro by Apple and the Intel Skulltrail motherboard.

MICROPROCESSER 64-bit designs in personal computer

While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s saw the introduction of 64-bit microchips targeted at the PC market.
With AMD's introduction of a 64-bit architecture backwards-compatible with x86, x86-64 (now called AMD64), in September 2003, followed by Intel's near fully compatible 64-bit extensions (first called IA-32e or EM64T, later renamed Intel 64), the 64-bit desktop era began. Both versions can run 32-bit legacy applications without any performance penalty as well as new 64-bit software. With operating systems Windows XP x64, Windows Vista x64, Linux, BSD and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native, the software is also geared to fully utilize the capabilities of such processors. The move to 64 bits is more than just an increase in register size from the IA-32 as it also doubles the number of general-purpose registers.
The move to 64 bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors' design in the early 90s and was not a major cause of incompatibility. Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways, but, as was the case with IA-32, both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years. Unlike what happened when IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal.

MICROPROCESSER OF 32-bit designs

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die.
16-bit designs were in the markets only briefly when full 32-bit implementations started to appear.
The most significant of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000, introduced in 1979. The 68K, as it was widely known, had 32-bit registers but used 16-bit internal data paths, and a 16-bit external data bus to reduce pin count, and supported only 24-bit addresses. Motorola generally described it as a 16-bit processor, though it clearly has 32-bit architecture. The combination of high performance, large (16 megabytes (2^24)) memory space and fairly low costs made it the most popular CPU design of its class. The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga.
The world's first single-chip fully-32-bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982 (See this bibliographic reference and this general reference). After the divestiture of AT&T in 1984, it was renamed the WE 32000 (WE for Western Electric), and had two follow-on generations, the WE 32100 and WE 32200. These microprocessors were used in the AT&T 3B5 and 3B15 minicomputers; in the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer; in the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer; and in "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer, featuring ROM-pack memory cartridges similar to today's gaming consoles. All these systems ran the UNIX System V operating system.
Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432, which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success. It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to other competing architectures such as the Motorola 68000.
Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010, which added virtual memory support. The MC68020, introduced in 1985 added full 32-bit data and address busses. The 68020 became hugely popular in the Unix supermicrocomputer market, and many small companies (e.g., Altos, Charles River Data Systems) produced desktop-size systems. The MC68030 was introduced next, improving upon the previous design by integrating the MMU into the chip. The continued success led to the MC68040, which included an FPU for better math performance. A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs. The 68K family faded from the desktop in the early 1990s.
Other large companies designed the 68020 and follow-ons into embedded equipment. At one point, there were more 68020s in embedded equipment than there were Intel Pentiums in PCs (See this webpage for this embedded usage information). The ColdFire processor cores are derivatives of the venerable 68020.
During this time (early to mid 1980s), National Semiconductor introduced a very similar 16-bit pinout, 32-bit internal microprocessor called the NS 16032 (later renamed 32016), the full 32-bit version named the NS 32032, and a line of 32-bit industrial OEM microcomputers. By the mid-1980s, Sequent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032. This was one of the design's few wins, and it disappeared in the late 1980s.
The MIPS R2000 (1984) and R3000 (1989) were highly successful 32-bit RISC microprocessors. They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI, among others.
Other designs included the interesting Zilog Z8000, which arrived too late to market to stand a chance and disappeared quickly.
In the late 1980s, "microprocessor wars" started killing off some of the microprocessors. Apparently, with only one major design win, Sequent, the NS 32032 just faded out of existence, and Sequent switched to Intel microprocessors.
From 1985 to 2003, the 32-bit x86 architectures became increasingly dominant in desktop, laptop, and server markets, and these microprocessors became faster and more capable. Intel had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies, but declined to license the Pentium, so AMD and Cyrix built later versions of the architecture based on their own designs. During this span, these processors increased in complexity (transistor count) and capability (instructions/second) by at least three orders of magnitude. Intel's Pentium line is probably the most famous and recognizable 32-bit processor model, at least with the public at large.

MICROPROCESSER OF 16-bit designs

The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16, introduced in early 1973. An 8-bit version of the chipset was introduced in 1974 as the IMP-8. During the same year, National introduced the first 16-bit single-chip microprocessor, the National Semiconductor PACE, which was later followed by an NMOS version, the INS8900.
Other early multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include one used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the LSI-11 OEM board set and the packaged PDP 11/03 minicomputer, and the Fairchild Semiconductor MicroFlame 9440, both of which were introduced in the 1975 to 1976 timeframe.
The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900, which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers. The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer, the TI-99/4A home computer, and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards. The chip was packaged in a large ceramic 64-pin DIP package, while most 8-bit microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 used the more common, smaller, and less expensive plastic 40-pin DIP. A follow-on chip, the TMS 9980, was designed to compete with the Intel 8080, had the full TI 990 16-bit instruction set, used a plastic 40-pin package, moved data 8 bits at a time, but could only address 16 KB. A third chip, the TMS 9995, was a new design. The family later expanded to include the 99105 and 99110.
The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984. The 65816 16-bit microprocessor was the core of the Apple IIgs and later the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, making it one of the most popular 16-bit designs of all time.
Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086, the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers. Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines, and succeeded in winning much business on that premise. The 8088, a version of the 8086 that used an external 8-bit data bus, was the microprocessor in the first IBM PC, the model 5150. Following up their 8086 and 8088, Intel released the 80186, 80286 and, in 1985, the 32-bit 80386, cementing their PC market dominance with the processor family's backwards compatibility.
The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (MMU) was developed by Childs et al. of Intel, and awarded US patent number 4,442,484.

MICROPROCESSER Notable 8-bit designs

The 4004 was later followed in 1972 by the 8008, the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. These processors are the precursors to the very successful Intel 8080 (1974), Zilog Z80 (1976), and derivative Intel 8-bit processors. The competing Motorola 6800 was released August 1974 and the similar MOS Technology 6502 in 1975 (designed largely by the same people). The 6502 rivaled the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s.
A low overall cost, small packaging, simple computer bus requirements, and sometimes circuitry otherwise provided by external hardware (the Z80 had a built in memory refresh) allowed the home computer "revolution" to accelerate sharply in the early 1980s, eventually delivering such inexpensive machines as the Sinclair ZX-81, which sold for US$99.
The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several firms. It became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal computers, medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices. WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor technology which was later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990’s.
Motorola introduced the MC6809 in 1978, an ambitious and thought through 8-bit design source compatible with the 6800 and implemented using purely hard-wired logic. (Subsequent 16-bit microprocessors typically used microcode to some extent, as design requirements were getting too complex for hard-wired logic only.)
Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650, which enjoyed a brief surge of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture. 8086
A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976) which was used in NASA's Voyager and Viking spaceprobes of the 1970s, and onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995). RCA COSMAC was the first to implement C-MOS technology. The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power, and because its production process (Silicon on Sapphire) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era. Thus, the 1802 is said to be the first radiation-hardened microprocessor.
The RCA 1802 had what is called a static design, meaning that the clock frequency could be made arbitrarily low, even to 0 Hz, a total stop condition. This let the Voyager/Viking/Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage. Timers and/or sensors would awaken/improve the performance of the processor in time for important tasks, such as navigation updates, attitude control, data acquisition, and radio communication.


In April 1974, Intel introduced the 8-bit 8080, the first general-purpose microprocessor. With the ability to execute 290,000 instructions per second and 64K bytes of addressable memory, the 8080 was the first microprocessor with the speed, power, and efficiency to become a key tool for designers. Development labs set up by Hamilton/Avnet, Intel's first microprocessor distributor, showcased the 8080 and provided a broad customer base which contributed to its becoming the industry standard. A key factor in the 8080's success was its role in the introduction in January 1975 of the MITS Altair 8800, the first personal computer. It used the powerful 8080 microprocessor and established the precedent that personal computers must be easy to expand. With its increased sophistication, expandability, and an incredibly low price of $395, the Altair 8800 proved the viability of home computers. [12][13]


History Further information: History of general purpose CPUs
First types
The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).
Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC). Intel's 4004 is considered the first microprocesor.[4][5] This first microprocessor cost in the thousands of dollars.[6] The first known advertisement for the 4004 is dated back to November 1971; it appeared in Electronic News. [7] The project that produced Intel's first known microprocessor originated in 1969, when Busicom, a Japanese calculator manufacturer, asked Intel to build a chip set for high-performance desktop calculators. Busicom's original design called for a dozen different logic and memory chips. Ted Hoff, the Intel engineer assigned to the project, believed the design was not cost effective. His solution was to simplify the design and produce a programmable processor capable of creating a set of complex special-purpose calculator chips. Together with Masatoshi Shima and Federico Faggin, later the founder of Zilog, Hoff came up with a four-chip design; a ROM for custom application programs, a RAM for processing data, an I/O device, and an unnamed 4-bit central processing unit which would become known as a "microprocessor." [8] The Smithsonian Institution says TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran succeeded in creating the first microcontroller (also called a microcomputer) in 1971. The result of their work was the TMS 1000 which went commercial in 1974. [9] Ray Holt, a graduate of California Polytechnical University in 1968, began his computer design career with the F14 CADC. The central air data computer was shrouded in secrecy for over 30 years from its creation (the year being 1968), it was not publicly known until 1998 at which time, at the request of Mr. Ray Holt, the US Navy allowed the documents into the public domain. Since then many debates have argued that this was, in fact, the first microprocessor. [10] The scientific papers and literature published around 1971 reveal that the MP944 digital processor used for the F-14 Tomcat aircraft of the US Navy qualifies as the “first microprocessor”. Although interesting, it was not a single-chip processor, and was not general purpose – it was more like a set of parallel building blocks you could use to make a special-purpose DSP form. It indicates that today’s industry theme of converging DSP-microcontroller architectures was started in 1971. [11] This convergence of DSP and microcontroller architectures is know as a Digital Signal Controller
In 1968, Garrett AiResearch, with designer Ray Holt and Steve Geller, were invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy's new F-14 Tomcat fighter. The design was complete by 1970, and used a MOS-based chipset as the core CPU. The design was significantly (approximately 20 times) smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models. This system contained a "a 20-bit, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor". However, the system was considered so advanced that the Navy refused to allow publication of the design until 1997. For this reason the CADC, and the MP944 chipset it used, are fairly unknown even today. (see First Microprocessor Chip Set.) TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000, and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17, 1971, which implemented a calculator on a chip. The Intel chip was the 4-bit 4004, released on November 15, 1971, developed by Federico Faggin and Ted Hoff. The manager of the design team was Leslie L. Vadász.
TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor. Gary Boone was awarded U.S. Patent 3,757,306 for the single-chip microprocessor architecture on September 4, 1973. It may never be known which company actually had the first working microprocessor running on the lab bench. In both 1971 and 1976, Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent. A nice history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent.
Interestingly, a third party (Gilbert Hyatt) was awarded a patent which might cover the "microprocessor". See a webpage claiming an invention pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller". According to a rebuttal and a commentary, the patent was later invalidated, but not before substantial royalties were paid out.
A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the microprocessor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip.It is also called as micro-controller. The computer-on-a-chip patent, called the "microcomputer patent" at the time, U.S. Patent 4,074,351, was awarded to Gary Boone and Michael J. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent, the standard meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s), while the concept defined in the patent is perhaps more akin to a microcontroller.
According to A History of Modern Computing, (MIT Press), pp. 220–21, Intel entered into a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, later called Datapoint, of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing. Datapoint later decided not to use the chip, and Intel marketed it as the 8008 in April, 1972. This was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. It was the basis for the famous "Mark-8" computer kit advertised in the magazine Radio-Electronics in 1974. The 8008 and its successor, the world-famous 8080, opened up the microprocessor component marketplace.

microprosser contents

1 History
1.1 First types
1.2 General purpose
1.3 Notable 8-bit designs
1.4 16-bit designs
1.5 32-bit designs
1.6 64-bit designs in personal computers
1.7 Multicore designs
1.8 RISC
2 Special-purpose designs
3 Market statistics
4 Architectures
5 See also
5.1 Major designers
6 Notes
7 References
8 External links
8.1 General 8.2 Historical documents

Monday, August 24, 2009


Date invented
Late 1960s/Early 1970s (see article for explanation)
Connects to
Printed circuit boards via sockets, soldering, or other methods.
PowerPC, x86, x86-64, and many others (see below, and article)
Common manufacturers
AMD, Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, Analog Devices, Atmel, Cypress, Fairchild, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Intersil, ITT, Maxim, Microchip, Mitsubishi, MOS Technology, Motorola, National, NEC, NXP (Philips), OKI, Renesas, Samsung, Sharp, Siemens, Signetics, STM, Synertek, Texas Instruments, Toshiba, TSMC, UMC, Winbond, Zilog, and others.
A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). [1] The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4- and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.
Computer processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors. The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity. From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity have rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.
Since the early 1970s, the increase in capacity of microprocessors has been known to generally follow Moore's Law, which suggests that the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost, doubles every two years.[2] In the late 1990s, and in the high-performance microprocessor segment, heat generation (TDP), due to switching losses, static current leakage, and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint[3].

Saturday, August 15, 2009

Other microcontroller features

Other microcontroller features
Since embedded processors are usually used to control devices, they sometimes need to accept input from the device they are controlling. This is the purpose of the analog to digital converter. Since processors are built to interpret and process digital data, i.e. 1s and 0s, they won't be able to do anything with the analog signals that may be being sent to it by a device. So the analog to digital converter is used to convert the incoming data into a form that the processor can recognize. There is also a digital to analog converter that allows the processor to send data to the device it is controlling.
In addition to the converters, many embedded microprocessors include a variety of timers as well. One of the most common types of timers is the Programmable Interval Timer, or PIT for short. A PIT just counts down from some value to zero. Once it reaches zero, it sends an interrupt to the processor indicating that it has finished counting. This is useful for devices such as thermostats, which periodically test the temperature around them to see if they need to turn the air conditioner on, the heater on, etc.
Time Processing Unit or TPU for short is a sophisticated timer. In addition to counting down, the TPU can detect input events, generate output events, and perform other useful operations.
Dedicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) block makes it possible for the CPU to control power converters, resistive loads, motors, etc., without using lots of CPU resources in tight timer loops.
Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU.
For those wanting ethernet one can use an external chip like Crystal Semiconductor CS8900A, Realtek RTL8019, or Microchip ENC 28J60. All of them allow easy interfacing with low pin count.

History of microcontroller

The first single chip microprocessor was the 4 bit Intel 4004 released in 1971, with other more capable processors available over the next several years.
These however all required external chip(s) to implement a working system, raising total system cost, and making it impossible to economically computerise appliances.
The first computer system on a chip optimised for control applications - microcontroller was the Intel 8048 released in 1975[citation needed], with both RAM and ROM on the same chip. This chip would find its way into over one billion PC keyboards, and other numerous applications.
Most microcontrollers at this time had two variants. One had an erasable EEPROM program memory, which was significantly more expensive than the PROM variant which was only programmable once.
In 1993, the introduction of EEPROM memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16x84) [1][citation needed]) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM, allowing both rapid prototyping, and In System Programming.
The same year, Atmel introduced the first microcontroller using Flash memory. [5].
Other companies rapidly followed suit, with both memory types.
Cost has plummeted over time, with the cheapest 8-bit microcontrollers being available for under $0.25 in quantity (thousands) in 2009, and some 32-bit microcontrollers around $1 for similar quantities.
Nowadays microcontrollers are low cost and readily available for hobbyists, with large online communities around certain processors.
In the future, MRAM could potentially be used in microcontrollers as it has infinite endurance and its incremental semiconductor wafer process cost is relatively low.

Friday, August 14, 2009

Types of microcontrollers

Types of microcontrollers
See also: List of common microcontrollers
As of 2008 there are several dozen microcontroller architectures and vendors including:
ARM processors (from many vendors) using ARM7 or Cortex-M3 cores are generally microcontrollers
STMicroelectronics STM8S (8-bit), and STM32 (32-bit)
Atmel AVR (8-bit), AVR32 (32-bit), and AT91SAM
Freescale ColdFire (32-bit) and S08 (8-bit)
Hitachi H8, Hitachi SuperH
MIPS (32-bit PIC32)
NEC V850
PIC (8-bit PIC16, PIC18, 16-bit dsPIC33 / PIC24)
PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip)
Rabbit 2000
Texas Instruments MSP430 (16-bit), C2000 (32-bit), and Stellaris (32-bit)
Toshiba TLCS-870
Zilog eZ8, eZ80
and many others, some of which are used in very narrow range of applications or are more like applications processors than microcontrollers. The microcontroller market is extremely fragmented, with numerous vendors, technologies, and markets. Note that many vendors sell (or have sold) multiple architectures. In mid-2009, some consolidation is evident, with vendors pruning product lines.See also: List of common microcontrollers
As of 2008 there are several dozen microcontroller architectures and vendors including:
ARM processors (from many vendors) using ARM7 or Cortex-M3 cores are generally microcontrollers
STMicroelectronics STM8S (8-bit), and STM32 (32-bit)
Atmel AVR (8-bit), AVR32 (32-bit), and AT91SAM
Freescale ColdFire (32-bit) and S08 (8-bit)
Hitachi H8, Hitachi SuperH
MIPS (32-bit PIC32)
NEC V850
PIC (8-bit PIC16, PIC18, 16-bit dsPIC33 / PIC24)
PSoC (Programmable System-on-Chip)
Rabbit 2000
Texas Instruments MSP430 (16-bit), C2000 (32-bit), and Stellaris (32-bit)
Toshiba TLCS-870
Zilog eZ8, eZ80
and many others, some of which are used in very narrow range of applications or are more like applications processors than microcontrollers. The microcontroller market is extremely fragmented, with numerous vendors, technologies, and markets. Note that many vendors sell (or have sold) multiple architectures. In mid-2009, some consolidation is evident, with vendors pruning product lines.

microcontroller 8085

16-bit operations
Although the 8085 was generally an 8-bit processor, it also had limited abilities to perform 16-bit operations: Any of the three 16-bit register pairs (BC, DE, HL) or SP could be loaded with an immediate 16-bit value (using LXI), incremented or decremented (using INX and DCX), or added to HL (using DAD). The XCHG operation exchanged the values of HL and DE. By adding HL to itself, it was possible to achieve the same result as a 16-bit arithmetical left shift with one instruction. The only 16 bit instructions that affect any flag is DAD, which sets the CY (carry) flag in order to allow for programmed 24-bit or 32-bit arithmetics (or larger), needed to implement floating point arithmetics, for instance.
[edit] Input/output scheme
The 8085 supported up to 256 input/output (I/O) ports, accessed via dedicated I/O instructions—taking port addresses as operands. This I/O mapping scheme was regarded as an advantage, as it freed up the processor's limited address space. Many CPU architectures instead use a common address space without the need for dedicated I/O instructions, although a drawback in such designs may be that special hardware must be used to insert wait states as peripherals are often slower than memory. However, in some simple 8080 computers, I/O was indeed addressed as if they were memory cells, "memory mapped", leaving the I/O commands unused. I/O addressing could also sometimes employ the fact that the processor would output the same 8-bit port address to both the lower and the higher address byte (i.e. IN 05h would put the address 0505h on the 16-bit address bus). Similar I/O-port schemes were used in the 8080-compatible Zilog Z80 as well as the closely related x86 families of microprocessors.
Development system
Intel produced a series of development systems for the 8080 and 8085, known as the Personal Development System. The original PDS was a large box (in the Intel corporate blue colour) which included a CPU and monitor, and used 8 inch floppy disks. It ran the ISIS operating system and could also operate an emulator pod and EPROM programmer. The later iPDS was a much more portable unit featuring a small green screen and a 5¼ inch floppy disk drive, and ran the ISIS-II operating system. It could also accept a second 8085 processor, allowing a limited form of multi-processor operation where both CPUs shared the screen, keyboard and floppy disk drive. In addition to an 8080/8085 assembler, Intel produced a number of compilers including PL/M-80and Pascal languages, and a set of tools for linking and statically locating programs to enable them to be burnt into EPROMs and used in embedded systems. The hardware support changes were announced and supported, but the software upgrades were not supported by the assembler, user manual or any other means. At times it was claimed they were not tested when that was false
For the extensive use of 8085 in various applications, the microprocessor is provided with an instruction set which consists of various instructions such as MOV, ADD, SUB, JMP etc. These instructions are written in the form of a program which is used to perform various operations such as branching, addition, subtraction, bitwise logical and bit shift operations. More complex operations and other arithmetic operations must be implemented in software. For example, multiplication is implemented using a multiplication algorithm
The 8085 processor has found marginal use in small scale computers up to the 21st century. The TRS-80 Model 100 line uses a 80C85. The CMOS version 80C85 of the NMOS/HMOS 8085 processor has/had several manufacturers, and some versions (eg. Tundra Semiconductor Corporation's CA80C85B) have additional functionality, eg. extra machine code instructions. One niche application for the rad-hard version of the 8085 has been in on-board instrument data processors for several NASA and ESA space physics missions in the 1990s and early 2000s, including CRRES, Polar, FAST, Cluster, HESSI, Sojourner (rover)[2], and THEMIS. The Swiss company SAIA used the 8085 and the 8085-2 as the CPUs of their PCA1 line of programmable logic controllers during the 1980s.
See also: Comparison of embedded computer systems on board the Mars rovers
MCS-85 Family
The 8085 CPU was only one part of a much larger family of chips developed by Intel, for building a complete system. Although the 8085 CPU itself was not a great success, many of these support chips (or their descendents) later found their use in combination with the 8086 microprocessor, and are still in use today, although not as the chips themselves, but with their equivalent functionality embedded into larger VLSI chips, namely the "Southbridge" chips of modern PCs.
8007-Ram controller
8155-RAM+ 3 I/O Ports+Timer
8156-RAM+ 3 I/O Ports+Timer
8202-Dynamic RAM Controller
8203-Dynamic RAM Controller
8205-1 Of 8 Binary Decoder
8206-Error Detection & Correction Unit
8207-DRAM Controller
8210-TTL To MOS Shifter & High Voltage Clock Driver
8212-8 Bit I/O Port
8216-4 Bit Parallel Bidirectional Bus Driver
8218/8219-Bus Controller
8222-Dynamic RAM Refresh Controller
8226-4 Bit Parallel Bidirectional Bus Driver
8231-Arithmetic Processing Unit
8232-Floating Point Processor
8237-DMA Controller
8251-Communication Controller
8253-Programmable Interval Timer
8254-Programmable Interval Timer
8255-Programmable Peripheral Interface
8256-Multifunction Support Controller
8257-DMA Controller
8259-Programmable Interrupt Controller
8271-Programmable Floppy Disk Controller
8272-Single/Double Density Floppy Disk Controller
8273-Programmable HDLC/SDLC Protocol Controller
8274-Multi-Protocol Serial Controller
8275-CRT Controller
8276-Small System CRT Controller
8278-Programmable KeyBoard Interface
8279-KeyBoard/Display Controller
8282-8-bit Non-Inverting Latch with Output Buffer
8283-8-bit Inverting Latch with Output Buffer
8291-GPIB Talker/Listener
8292-GPIB Controller
8293-GPIB Transceiver
8294-Data Encryption/Decryption Unit+1 O/P Port
8295-Dot Matrix Printer Controller
8296-GPIB Transceiver
8297-GPIB Transceiver
8355-16,384-bit (2048 x 8) ROM with I/O
8604-4096-bit (512 x 8) PROM
8702-2K-bit (265 x 8 ) PROM
8755-EPROM+2 I/O Ports
Educational Use
In many engineering schools in Iraq, Syria, Turkey, Bangladesh, Iran, India, Pakistan, Brazil, Macedonia, Mexico, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Panama, Nepal, Malaysia and Bosnia and Herzegovina[2] the 8085 processor is popularly used in many introductory microprocessor courses.
8085 simulators exist aplenty for educational use. Freely available open source variants include GNUSim8085 and GSim85[3] working on both, GNU/Linux and Windows, a freely available web based simulator (including assembler) can be found here. Closed source freeware simulators for the Microsoft Win32 platform include Win85 [4] (which also emulates undocumented operations of the chip) and Sim8085.

microcontroller 8-bit instructions

Most 8-bit operations could only be performed on the 8-bit accumulator (the A register). For dyadic 8-bit operations, the other operand could be either an immediate value, another 8-bit register, or a memory cell addressed by the 16-bit register pair HL. Direct copying was supported between any two 8-bit registers and between any 8-bit register and a HL-addressed memory cell. Due to the regular encoding of the MOV-instruction (using a quarter of available opcode space) there were redundant codes to copy a register into itself (MOV B,B, for instance), which was of little use, except for delays. However, what would have been a copy from the HL-addressed cell into itself (i.e., MOV M,M) was instead used to encode the HLT instruction (halting execution until an external reset or interrupt).

microcontroller Commands/instructions

Like in many other 8-bit processors, all instructions were encoded in a single byte (including register-numbers, but excluding immediate data), for simplicity. Some of them were followed by one or two bytes of data, which could be an immediate operand, a memory address, or a port number. Like larger processors, it had automatic CALL and RET instructions for multi-level procedure calls and returns (which could even be conditionally executed, like jumps) and instructions to save and restore any 16-bit register-pair on the machine stack. There were also eight one-byte call instructions (RST) for subroutines located at the fixed addresses 00h, 08h, 10h,...,38h. These were intended to be supplied by external hardware in order to invoke a corresponding interrupt-service routine, but were also often employed as fast system calls. The most sophisticated command was XTHL, which was used for exchanging the register pair HL with the value stored at the address indicated by the stack pointer.

microcontroller Registers

The processor had seven 8-bit registers, (A, B, C, D, E, H, and L) where A was the 8-bit accumulator and the other six could be used as either byte-registers or as three 16-bit register pairs (BC, DE, HL) depending on the particular instruction. Some instructions also enabled HL to be used as (a limited) 16-bit accumulator. It also had a 16-bit stack pointer to memory (replacing the 8008's internal stack), and a 16-bit program counter.

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

microcontroller Programming model

Programming model
With a slighly higher integration and a single 5V power (using depletion mode load nMOS), the 8085 was a binary compatible follow up on the 8080, the successor to the original Intel 8008. The 8080 and 8085 used the same basic instruction set as the 8008 (developed by Computer Terminal Corporation) and they were source code compatible with their predecessor. However, the 8080 added several useful and handy 16-bit operations above the 8008 instruction set, while the 8085 added only a few relatively minor instructions above the 8080 set.

microcontroller Description

i8085 microarchitecture.
The 8085 is a conventional von Neumann design based on the Intel 8080. Unlike the 8080 it had no state signals multiplexed onto the data bus, but the 8-bit data bus was instead multiplexed with the lower part of the 16-bit address bus (in order to limit the number of pins to 40). The processor was designed using nMOS circuitry and the later "H" versions were implemented in Intel's enhanced nMOS process called HMOS, originally developed for fast static RAM products. The 8085 used approximately 6,500 transistors[1].
The 8085 incorporated the functionality of the 8224 (clock generator) and the 8228 (system controller), increasing the level of integration. A downside compared to similar contemporary designs (such as the Z80) was the fact that the buses required demultiplexing, however, address latches in the Intel 8155, 8355, and 8755 memory chips allowed a direct interface, so an 8085 along with these chips was almost a complete system.
The 8085 had extensions to support new interrupts: It had three maskable interrupts (RST 7.5, RST 6.5 and RST 5.5), one Non-Maskable interrupt (TRAP), and one externally serviced interrupt (INTR). The RST n.5 interrupts refer to actual pins on the processor-a feature which permitted simple systems to avoid the cost of a separate interrupt controller.
Like the 8080, the 8085 could accommodate slower memories through externally generated wait states (pin 35, READY), and had provisions for Direct Memory Access (DMA) using HOLD and HLDA signals (pins 39 and 38). An improvement over the 8080 was that the 8085 can itself drive a piezoelectric crystal directly connected to it, and a built in clock generator generates the internal high amplitude two-phase clock signals at half the crystal frequency (a 6.14 MHz crystal would yield a 3.07 MHz clock for instance).

Microprocessor Books

Microprocessor Books
Microprocessors and Microcomputers--Hardware and Software Sixth Edition by Ronald J.Tocci ,Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River
Software and Hardware Engineering, Motorola M68HC12 by Ramon A. Mata-Toledo, Pauline K. Cushman
Microcontroller Projects in C for the 8051 by Dogan Ibrahim
Programming and Customizing the 8051 Microcontroller by Myke Predko
Microprocessor Architecture, Programming, and Applications with the 8085 (4th Edition) by Ramesh S. Microprocessor Architecture,P. Gaonkar
Pentium Processor System Architecture (2nd Edition) by Don Anderson, Tom Shanley
Debugging Embedded Microprocessor Systems by Stuart R. Ball
The 68000 Microprocessor: Hardware and Software Principles and Applications (4th Edition) by James L. Antonakos
80486 System Architecture (3rd Edition) by Tom Shanley
Pentium Microprocessor by James L. Antonakos

8051 Microcontroller: An Applications-Based Introduction

The 8051 architecture developed by Intel has proved to be the most popular and enduring type of microcontroller, available from many manufacturers and widely used for industrial applications and embedded systems. It is also a versatile and economical option for design prototyping, educational use and other project work.
In this book the authors introduce the fundamentals and capabilities of the 8051, then put them to use through practical exercises and project work. The result is a highly practical learning experience that will help a wide range of engineers and students to become proficient and productive designing with the 8051. The text is also supported by practical examples, summaries and knowledge-check questions.
The latest developments in the 8051 family are also covered in this book, with chapters covering flash memory devices and 16-bit microcontrollers.
An associated website for this book includes links to download free software for application simulation and development, plus circuit details, code listings and software.
Dave Calcutt, Fred Cowan and Hassan Parchizadeh are all experienced authors and lecturers at the University of Portsmouth, UK.
Book Features
Increase design productivity quickly with 8051 family microcontrollers Unlock the potential of the latest 8051 technology: flash memory devices and16-bit chips
Self-paced learning for electronic designers, technicians and students

microcontroller application

Microcontrollers are found in almost all "smart" electronic devices. From microwaves to automotive braking systems, they are around us doing jobs that make our lives more convenient and safer. Microcontrollers are essentially small computers. Unlike your desktop computer, microcontrollers interact with other machines rather than humans. A microcontroller might be used to measure the temperature of your toast at breakfast and when the temperature reaches a predetermined measure, the toaster could be turned off. A microcontroller could also be used to count the number of customers entering the ball park through a turnstile thereby keeping track of ticket sales. The uses for these small versatile devices is diverse. Perhaps you can imagine a microcontroller application that will improve a product or decrease the time required to complete a process.Our purpose here is to help you learn what microcontrollers do and how they go about doing it. In the projects section you will find instructions to help you learn to use microcontrollers through hands-on experiences. You should be able to get microcontrollers to do some interesting things by the time you finish the projects.Working with microcontrollers can be both entertaining and frustrating. If you are fascinated by electrical stuff and like to solve challenging problems this study is for you. Now you should visit the projects page for information on getting started.

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

sony lcd tv

The 55 (140cm) X Series BRAVIA manages to achieve the perfect synergy of design and technology with cutting-edge technologies such as RGB Dynamic LED, BRAVIA Engine™ 2 Pro, Motionflow™ PRO Technologies and DLNA.

MRP Rs. 399,900 /-*
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The 46 (117cm) X Series BRAVIA manages to achieve the perfect synergy of design and technology with cutting-edge technologies such as RGB Dynamic LED, BRAVIA Engine™ 2 Pro, Motionflow™ PRO Technologies and DLNA.

MRP Rs. 203,900 /-*
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The 40 (102cm) X Series BRAVIA manages to achieve the perfect synergy of design and technology with cutting-edge technologies such as WCG-CCFL, BRAVIA Engine™ 2 Pro, Motionflow™ 100Hz (PAL)/120Hz (NTSC) and DLNA.
MRP Rs. 153,900 /-*
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Experience sports and movies like never before with Sony’s 46 (117 cm) X-series BRAVIA which gives you crystal-clear 1080p HD clarity and integrated surround sound.
MRP Rs. 203,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

The BRAVIA ZX1 offers the ultimate in visual appeal with a 40 (102cm) screen measuring a barely believable 9.9mm at its slimmest section. The panel is illuminated with BRAVIA Edge LED technology which dramatically reduces the weight and size of LCD TVs.
MRP Rs. 199,900 /-*
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Featuring world’s first quadruple 200Hz (PAL)/240Hz (NTSC) frame rate conversion, the 52 (132cm) Z450A Series BRAVIA is capable of delivering sharp and smooth fast-moving images regardless of the programmes you watching.
MRP Rs. 359,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

Featuring world’s first quadruple 200Hz (PAL)/240Hz (NTSC) frame rate conversion, the 46 (117cm) Z450A Series BRAVIA is capable of delivering sharp and smooth fast-moving images regardless of the programmes you watching.
MRP Rs. 183,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

Featuring world’s first quadruple 200Hz (PAL)/240Hz (NTSC) frame rate conversion, the 46 (117cm) Z450A Series BRAVIA is capable of delivering sharp and smooth fast-moving images regardless of the programmes you watching.
MRP Rs. 183,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

Featuring world’s first quadruple 200Hz (PAL)/240Hz (NTSC) frame rate conversion, the 40 (102cm) Z450A Series BRAVIA is capable of delivering sharp and smooth fast-moving images regardless of the programmes you watching.
MRP Rs. 133,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

Featuring world’s first quadruple 200Hz (PAL)/240Hz (NTSC) frame rate conversion, the 40 (102cm) Z450A Series BRAVIA is capable of delivering sharp and smooth fast-moving images regardless of the programmes you watching.
MRP Rs. 133,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)

Sony’s 46 (117cm) W550A Series BRAVIA LCD TV is perfect for those looking for excitement because technologies such as Motionflow™ 100Hz (PAL)/120Hz (NTSC), BRAVIA Engine™ 3, and Live Colour™ work together in synergy to engage your senses and deliver an experience that is truly unlike any other.
MRP Rs. 133,900 /-*
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The 40 (102cm) W550A Series BRAVIA LCD TV is perfect for those looking for excitement because technologies such as Motionflow™ 100Hz (PAL)/120Hz (NTSC), BRAVIA Engine™ 3, and Live Colour™ work together in synergy to engage your senses and deliver an experience that is truly unlike any other.
MRP Rs. 93,900 /-*
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Sony’s 32 (81cm) W550A Series BRAVIA LCD TV is perfect for those looking for excitement because technologies such as Motionflow™ 100Hz (PAL)/120Hz (NTSC), BRAVIA Engine™ 3, and Live Colour™ work together in synergy to engage your senses and deliver an experience that is truly unlike any other.
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The 52 (132cm) W450A Series BRAVIA is capable of displaying fast-moving images with Motionflow 100Hz Technology. Combined with a brilliant Full HD 1080 panel and x.v.Colour, the ‘midnight blue’ bezel provides an impressive balance of features, design and values.
MRP Rs. 259,900 /-*
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The 46 (117cm) W450A Series BRAVIA is capable of displaying fast-moving images with Motionflow 100Hz Technology. Combined with a brilliant Full HD 1080 panel and x.v.Colour, the ‘midnight blue’ bezel provides an impressive balance of features, design and values.
The 40 (102cm) W450A Series BRAVIA is capable of displaying fast-moving images with Motionflow 100Hz Technology. Combined with a brilliant Full HD 1080 panel and x.v.Colour, the ‘midnight blue’ bezel provides an impressive balance of features, design and values.
MRP Rs. 133,900 /-*
(MRP inclusive of all taxes)